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Jag's World Header




Mad With Macintosh  


Get Your Compact Mac On the Web

A Guide On How To Get A Mac Plus, SE, SE/30 or Classic, Portable or 68000 Mac on the Web


  by JAG

Version 2 July, 1997





Chapter 1 - Requirements

Chapter 2 - Upgrading Your Ram

Chapter 3 - Upgrading to System 7

Chapter 4 - The Details

Chapter 5 - Software For Older Macs

Chapter 6 - Using A Browser

Chapter 7 - Surf With 1 Meg???

Chapter 8 - RamCharger Review

Chapter 9 - Internet FAQ (more info on software setup for internet use) 


I also have other Mac related documents available on my shareware page:

Mac Facts - A simple little document for Mac newbies.

Make Any Mac From the Plus on Up A Web Server - This one is the most popular. It explains how to make your Mac a web server for as little as ten dollars.

Feel free to distribute this any way you like, just email me and tell me so I know somebody out there is using it.




v 1.0 11/30/96

v 1.5 7/1/97




Chapter 1

The Requirements


1. A working knowledge of the Mac and a SLIP or PPP account. If you don't know what these are, you probably don't have one. This manual does not go into detail on how to get an account or what a URL is. It assumes you already know that. 

2. A Mac. This tutorial covers the older compact Macs because many people aren't aware that they can even get on the net or the web.

These include: the Plus, SE, SE/30, Classic, Classic II and Portable . Also any Powerbook that uses the 68000 processor such as the PB 100.

This is not to say that ONLY these Macs can use the techniques in this manual. In fact, my Centris660AV (c. 1993) uses the exact same setup except I use system 7.5.5 (which by the way, you can use on your trusty Plus as well!).

3. 4 megs of ram minimum. (OK, not really, see chapter 7).

4. 10 meg drive minimum. (See chapter 7 to surf with no drive).

5. Config PPP and MacTCP control panels. update

6. System 7 thru 7.5.5 (7.01 or 7.1 preferred. See chapter 7 to surf under System 6).

7. A SLIP or PPP connection (this assumes you're not using AOL).

8. MacWeb or Mosaic 1.03 web browser

Netscape 1.0 will work on the SE/30. You can also use the beta version of MacLynx and iCab and Netscape 3 (very slow) which is a text only browser that is very very fast.

9. Eudora Lite for email. Eudora for system 6. There may be other versions that will work depending on what Mac you have. Try 'em all!

10. Newswatcher for usenet. For system 6. There may be other versions that will work depending on what Mac you have. Try 'em all!

11. Ircle 2.5 for chat. For system 6. There may be other versions that will work depending on what Mac you have. Try 'em all!




Chapter 2

Upgrading Your Ram


(courtesy of the Mac Mac Support Pages,

These instructions apply to the Plus, SE and SE/30. If you have a Classic, refer to your owner's manual. 

You can buy 1 meg simms for the Plus, SE, SE/30 and older Powerbooks very cheaply these days. Paruse the usenet '' newsgroups or Low End Mac Swap List

Let's Get Crackin'! 

Obviously, disconnect your Mac from the mains, and leave it for at least an hour. If it's been disconnected for several hours or overnight, so much the better.  

First thing to do is remove the programmer's switch if your Mac has one installed. It's the oblong plastic thingy on the left side of the case at the bottom near the back. There are two icons on it, one of which is a left-pointing triangle like the one on the keyboard's reset key. It should prise out quite easily - pull at the bottom edge and gently wiggle it out.

The case is fixed at the rear with two screws near the base and two more tucked away in the carry-handle recess. You need a long 3/16" allen (hex) wrench, otherwise known as a Torx T-15 driver, to undo them. The tricky bit is the length of the shaft needed to get to the screws in the handle. Mac suppliers used to sell 'Mac Cracker' kits for compact Macs that included a long T-15, and you might still be able to get one of these.

 Alternatively, try to find a screwdriver/bit set that has both a long shank and an extension, or an extension and very long bits. Auto parts shops may have them. You can also buy the extension bits separately.

After you've removed all the screws, lay the screen-down on something soft before prying it open. The 'Mac Cracker' kits included a device which you slotted into the narrow indentation running round the sides and top of the Mac, just behind the screen. Applying pressure levered the case away from the chassis slightly so you could lift it off. However, you can improvise with a metal ruler or similar. Some people recommend slapping the sides of the Mac (not too hard!) to loosen it.


Installing extra RAM


To upgrade a Mac Plus or SE's RAM you need 30-pin SIMMs, with an access time of 150ns or faster. You can use one-megabyte or 256k SIMMs. Four megabytes is the most you can put in a Plus or SE (unless you have the kind of accelerator card which has its own SIMM sockets, allowing you to add more).

 Once you've removed the Mac case, take away the RF interference shield/foil covering of the motherboard and set it aside - it will just get in your way. Before yanking at the motherboard to get it out, disconnect from the board the power plug, the cable coming from the floppy drive(s) and the cable from the hard disk, if you've got one. Don't worry, they're hard to miss.

You'll find the power plug a pain. A little plastic tab toward the screen side pushes up and makes the power cord come right off - if you can get your darn finger in there.

Lift the motherboard slowly (it will require some pressure) until you see the indentations in the edge of the motherboard line up with the holes in the board's guide rails. Swing the motherboard out slowly. STOP! See that little wire still attached?

That's the speaker wire. It's pretty impossible to reach at any other time so you have to disconnect it and reconnect it at this stage (it comes out easily).  

Gently place the board on a flat, dry, dirt-free surface. The four SIMM slots in two rows are at the front of the motherboard, set at an angle. Remove the old SIMMs by placing your thumbs at the sides of each slot and putting pressure on the clips. You'll feel the SIMM release and you can just pull it out.  

Install new SIMMs the same way - set them in place and press gently until the clips snap them in.

There are four possible RAM configurations - 1mb, 2mb, 2.5mb or 4mb. You can't put a 1mb SIMM in the same row as a 256k one, and you can't have just one SIMM in a row. A 1mb Plus or SE has four 256k SIMMs. For 2mb, put two 1mb SIMMS

in the top row, and for 2.5mb do that and put two 256k SIMMs in the bottom row. For 4mb, each slot has a 1mb SIMM. Note also that SIMMs in the same row must be of the same speed (150ns or faster).

Now there's just one more thing to do before you close up the case. Older Pluses and SEs have two locations next to the SIMM slots for resistors which tell the Mac what kind of RAM configuration it has. This spot on the motherboard is labelled 'RAM size'. The top resistor location says '256k bit / R35', and the bottom says 'One row / R36'.

 On a 1mb SE the top location has a resistor soldered in place and the bottom one doesn't. With 2mb it's the other way round, the bottom location has a resistor and the top one doesn't. For 2.5mb and 4mb, neither location should have a resistor.

When you've changed the amount of RAM you'll have to ensure that these 'RAM size' resistors are set correctly, and for adding RAM this nearly always means removing a resistor. In fact, rather than cutting it out completely, it's better to snip the wire close to the board and bend it out of the way. Then, if you ever want to go back to a 2mb or 1mb configuration, you'll be able to resolder it.  

Later model SEs have a jumper clip instead of resistors. It's labelled 'J16' and will have the words 'RAM size 2/4M 1M' printed on the board. If you remove the jumper, you can address 4mb. If you put the jumper to the left, you can address 2mb. If you put the jumper on the right, you can address 1mb.


Specs on the Mac Plus



The Macintosh Plus comes with 1MB installed via four 256k SIMMs. Using four 1MB SIMMs, a maximum of 4MB is possible. Remember to install the highest density SIMM in bank A first.

When 1MB SIMMs are installed, the 256KBIT resistor must be clipped to enable recognition of the higherdensity SIMMs.


Specs on the Mac SE




The Macintosh SE comes with 1MB installed via four 256k SIMMs. Using four 1MB SIMMs, a maximum of 4MB is possible. Remember the highest density SIMMs must be installed in Slot 1 and 2 first.

There are two different logic board configurations for the SE, one with a jumper and one with a resistor to identify the memory level installed. The RAM is installed differently depending upon what logic board you have.

If you have the jumper logic board, your possible configurations are 1MB, 2MB, 2.5MB and 4MB with the highest density SIMMs being installed in the front two banks first (3 & 4).

A 2.5MB configuration on a Jumpered logic board has a 1MB SIMM in positions 3 and 4 and a 256K SIMM in position 1 and 2.


The Jumper must be removed or the resistor clipped for a 2.5MB configuration. Place the Jumper on one pin so it will not be lost. Clip one lead of the resistor and move it out of the way so it can be reinstalled if necessary.


Specs on the Mac SE/30



The Macintosh SE/30 comes with 1MB installed via four 256k SIMMs. Using eight 4MB SIMMs, a maximum of 128MB is possible with (8) 16 meg 30 pin simms.. 

You must fill each bank of four slots with similar sized SIMMs.

32-BIT Information. The ROMs in this system are not 32-bit-clean, but with the 32-Bit System Enabler under System 7.1 or

MODE32 with versions of System 7 prior to 7.1, they can run in 32-bit mode and can take advantage of more than 8MB of physical RAM.


Specs on the Mac Classic



The Macintosh Classic comes with 1MB on the logic board. The memory expansion card has 1MB soldered onto it and two SIMM slots. Using two 1MB SIMMs, a maximum of 4MB is possible.

Be sure to configure the jumper as shown when memory is added to the card.

The Macintosh Classic can perform erratically if 1MB SIMMs containing two chips are installed. When upgrading memory, be sure to use 8 chip SIMMs.


Specs on the PowerBook 100


The PowerBook 100 has 2MB soldered to the motherboard, there is one expansion slot for a memory card.

 You must verify compatibility between any memory card and the PowerBook 100.



Chapter 3

Upgrading to System 7

NEW! You can surf under System 6 as well.


A Mac Plus has an 800k floppy drive which means System 7 won't load from floppies. Some SE's, SE/30's and Classics have a 1.4 meg drive. You can download a version of system 7.0 from Apple's web site that will fit on 800k floppies. Then you'll have to download system 7 update to get to system 7.0.1. Why 7.0.1? It's more stable that 7.0 (all systems that are above X.0 are more stable) and it features the fonts folder for easier font installation. It's alos the last free system Apple offers as of this writing (believe it or not!). You can download version 7.0.1 that will fit on 1.4 meg floppies.

I downloaded system 7.01 because it uses the smallest amount of RAM. You can use any version of system 7 up to 7.5.5 on a Plus according to Apple, but there's not much point in using anything past 7.1 due to ram limitations. You'll have to disable almost all your extensions to leave yourself enough ram for even minimal Mac usage. 

My Plus has 4 megs of ram. If you have less, you'll need to upgrade to 4 megs. (OK, you CAN surf on 1 meg for those of you who dare. See chapter 7 for details).

I used an external Zip drive to install system 7.01 after downloading it. To install from a ZIp drive onto a Plus, put the Iomega driver (MUST be less than version 5 to work on the Plus) into the system folder of the Plus which at this point has system 6XX installed. Reboot after plugging the Zip drive in and it will come right up on the desktop. Note that you can boot form the Zip on SOME Pluses, but not all.

Make a backup of your Mac's hard drive so you can reformat the drive before installing system 7.x.

Reformat the Plus' 40 meg drive (if you don't know how to do this, refer to your Mac's owner's manual) and click on the installer for system 7.01 that is on your external drive and install it to your Plus drive. You can also use any external hard drive to install the system on a Plus 

After installing system 7.x, put the Iomega driver into the extensions folder (if you're using a Zip or Jaz drive) along with Mac TCP and Config PPP into the Control Panels folder. Alos install PPP into the extensions folder. These are all available on my web site:


Now you can re-install your applications and files form the backup Zip disk or hard drive. Note that some of your older system 6 applications may not work under system 7, but don't worry... for every system 6 app that won't work, there are several system 7 apps that will do the same thing... and most will be BETTER!




Chapter 4

The Details



Mac Web is a great little browser that will work with as little as 750k! Which of course if perfect for older Macs with very little ram. You can also turn off the graphics for the compact Macs that won't view them anyway.

The browser works just like any other. It is of course limited in features, but as far as I know, it's the only browser that will even work on 68000 Macs.


Ircle 2.5


Ircle is the best program for internet chat. If you've ever used AOL for chat, Ircle blows it away! Finally, a chat client that let's you skip the antiquated text commands and replaces them with a GUI.

Here are just a few of it's features:



Eudora is a great shareware email program. It runs on only 372K of ram and has many features other bloated mail programs have.

You can set your own sig, send attatchments, has built-in help, will automatically check your mail at any interval you wish, has a built-in Finger capability, has passwords for security and a lot more.



I've learned so much about the Mac via Usenet that it's not even funny. TONS of great info await you!

Newswatcher is a great shareware version of a newsreader. It's free and very easy to use. You can pick your own fonts, it runs on 1.5 megs of ram and is quite fast compared to Netscape.


List of Newsgroups

Newswatcher has Apple Guide support which means you can get online help by clicking on the question mark in the upper right corner of your screen.



Chapter 5

Software For Older Macs

Every web browser known to man - very old versions of netscape, iCab, Explorer, etc...

Matti Haveri's FAQ's - 68000 FAQ, Internet FAQ for older Macs, more 

Note that also newer versions might work. 68000 macs are supported up to System 7.5.5. The last freely distributed

System 7.0* (DD floppies) and 7.0.1*:







Requirements for the net

(see chapter 7 to surf with 1 meg and no drive!)

 Get all the software you need here.

MacPlus, 4 MB RAM, 20 MB hard disk, (2400-)14400 modem, System 7.0* and MacTCP 2.0.6 are the practical minimum requirements for PPP connections. Only MacPPP 2.0.1 currently works on 68000 macs.

 On 68000 macs telnet-, ftp-, mail-, and news-apps like NCSA Telnet, Fetch, Anarchie 1.6.0, Eudora, and NewsWatcher work fine. With NCSA Telnet you can't use control-keys which MacPlus lacks (in ZTerm you can use command instead of control).

 For www NCSA Mosaic 1.0.3 and MacWeb 1.00A3.2 work; NCSA Mosaic can display in-line graphics but with MacWeb (on 68000 macs) you must use GIFConverter as a helper (click and hold on an image icon, choose "Retrieve to Disk" from the pop-up menu and view with GIFConverter). Apps and extensions requiring color or better processor (Netscape Navigator, JPEGView, QuickTime etc) don't work on low-end macs like the Plus. 





Of www browsers NCSA Mosaic 1.0.3 and MacWeb 1.00A3.2 work also on low-end 68000 B&W macs (Plus, SE, Portable, Classic, PB100). MacWeb 1.00A3.2 works better than 1.1.1 E which crashes when saving prefs. NCSA Mosaic can also display in-line graphics but with MacWeb (on 68000 Macs) you must use GIFConverter as a helper (click and hold on an image icon, choose "Retrieve to Disk" from the pop-up menu and view with GIFConverter). 





ResEdit instructions for proxy support in MacWeb 1.00A3.2:






If you need to save disk space unfatten the apps with Strip Fat, for example:



Use a local info-mac mirror, if possible:





URLs of some communications programs and apps are available at:





Chapter 6

Using A Browser


(This chapter is courtesy of the Mac SE Support Pages by Chris Adams,

 Note: Most of the software mentioned below can be found at:


Which browser for black & white Macs?


There are only two real choices when it comes to World Wide Web browsers for monochrome Macs like the SE and Plus -TradeWave's MacWeb, or a very early version of NCSA Mosaic. Neither has the features of Netscape or Micro$oft Internet Explorer, of course, but they work on our antique machines.


NCSA Mosaic

NCSA Mosaic 1.0.3 is old and slow, and can't handle the many Web features that came along after it was released. Its advantage is that it can display some in-line graphics (but not JPEGs) even on black and white Macs. However, the images are fairly crude.



MacWeb is a better bet. All you need to browse the Web is the application itself, and that weighs in at a mere 680k for the latest version on 680x0 Macs - it'll run off an 800k floppy with 99k to spare for your hotlists and bookmarks! It doesn't create complex folder structures in your System Folder, installs no extensions, patches no traps. The memory requirement is equally lean, a minimum of one megabyte for the latest release, 750k for earlier versions. And this gives you a browser that will also do ftp transfers, gopher, news, and more.

 But MacWeb can't display inline graphics at all on mono screens (though there's a partial workaround - see later). And it requires System 7.

 TradeWave, the company that released MacWeb, no longer distributes it as a standalone browser, but these versions are still available for download on the net:

MacWeb 2.0 was also distributed on the CD that came with the February 1997 US edition of Macworld magazine. It may be hidden deep within the folder structure, or even inside an archive file. Look for the AOL section and hunt around - it's there somewhere. MacWeb 2.0 uses the Internet Config program for many of its settings. This may also come on the Macworld CD, but is not included in the MacWeb2.sit archive at


So which MacWeb version should I use?


There were few obvious changes between version 1.00A3.2 and 1.1.1E, and many people still use the earlier version. (Note, however, that there was a short-lived release that came between these two which limited the number of Web pages you could download before it expired. You could start the count again by trashing the prefs file! The download limit disappeared in version 1.1.1E).

 There have been a few reports that 1.1.1E crashes when saving prefs. It doesn't crash on my SE with a 68020 accelerator, but sometimes when I change and save the prefs, a character gets clipped off the beginning of both my email address and news server name. So if the email address started out as, the first re-saving of the prefs would turn it into Re-save again and it becomes, and so on. This clipping only happens if you

leave the prefs window by pressing "Enter" instead of "Cancel", and only shows up the next time you launch the program. You can get round it by adding a dummy character before saving (e.g.,

 MacWeb 2.0 has many more features than the earlier versions, but this comes at a price. Previously, MacWeb ignored the many HTML "tags" it didn't know how to handle, like tables, image alignment etc. This was one of the reasons it displayed pages much faster than the increasingly bloated Netscape. With version 2.0, MacWeb now interprets many of these tags, and so takes much longer to render heavily-formatted pages in the browser window. In extreme cases this 'pagination' can take

so long you may think your Mac has crashed - it probably hasn't, but if you're paying for a dial-up net connection this isn't much comfort. To set against that, many of these fancy-formatted web sites are very difficult to make sense of without the formatting, and before MacWeb 2.0 I tended to avoid them. Now they look OK, if not always worth the wait....

 On black and white Macs MacWeb 2.0 sometimes "blacks out" all or part of its window when you're navigating around a web page. This seems to be caused by HTML code that sets a colour for the page background. The most reliable way I've found to deal with it is to move the horizontal scroll box all the way to the right so that the (blacked-out) text disappears off to the left, then move the scroll box back again. When the text reappears, it's OK. So far this has worked for me every time.

 Another glitch - MacWeb 2.0 doesn't seem to handle radio buttons or checkboxes in web page forms on black and white Macs. This is very annoying, since earlier versions handled them just fine!

 In short, the two earlier MacWeb versions are faster but limited, while MacWeb 2.0, though it can be slow and temperamental, is much better at coping with today's Web. So far I've found v2.0 worth the hassle. In addition, MacWeb 2.0 comes with documentation - the others didn't. Selecting "MacWeb Help" under the Help menu won't do anything. It

used to connect to the TradeWave server which merely sent the message "Document under construction", and even that link will be dead by now.

 MacWeb 1.x instructions...


... from Adam Engst's "Internet Starter Kit for Macintosh" from campus information server at the London School of Economics at MacWeb Hints & Tips Page


Viewing images with MacWeb


With all versions of MacWeb you have to use an external helper to see images on black and white Macs (click and hold on an image icon, choose "Retrieve to Disk" or "Get image and save as..." from the pop-up menu, then view the GIFs and JPEGs you retrieved with GIFConverter 2.3.7 or GIFs only with GIFwatcher DA). Even on a four megabyte machine, you won't have enough RAM to run both MacWeb and GIFConverter unless you're using a utility like RAM Charger, so you'll have to wait till you can quit MacWeb.

Can you get MacWeb to show GIFs automatically on a 4MB Mac? Yes!

Usually, MacWeb opens GIFs internally, but this is not possible on monochrome machines because they can't use Color QuickDraw. GIFwatcher DA can display GIFs by dithering the colours to black and white stipple patterns. GIFConverter also does this, but GIFwatcher uses a relatively small amount of memory, so you can run it alongside MacWeb if you have four megs.  

Problem is, only applications can be selected as "helpers" for MacWeb, and GIFwatcher isn't an application - it's an old-style desk accessory and won't appear in the file list if you try to select it as a helper. Not to worry, a shareware package called "DA Piggyback 1.2" can transform DAs into applications.  

One point worth noting is that you can't change GIFwatcher's default settings (including the initial window size or position) once the DA has been converted to an application - you have to set it up the way you want first, then run it through DA PiggyBack. Also, you might have to click on GIFwatcher's title-bar to select its window from MacWeb - clicking elsewhere in the window sometimes has no effect.  

Once you've turned GIFwatcher into an application, open its "Get info" window in the Finder and give it a Preferred and Minimum memory partition of about 150k. This should be enough for most Web page GIFs. You can ignore any warning that you've allowed less memory than the suggested amount.

 What you need to do next depends on which version of MacWeb you're using.

With versions before MacWeb 2.0, choose "Helpers..." from the Edit menu. You're presented with a list of "MIME types". Select "image/gif" and click on Edit. On the next screen, click on "More choices". Make sure the "Don't Launch" checkbox is unchecked. Then, just below and to the right of where it says "Launch the application with this signature: ", click on "Select...". Find GIFwatcher and open it. Now keep clicking "OK" until all the helper windows disappear. Next, under the file menu, select "Preferences", then "Format", and turn "Autoload images" off - you must view each GIF separately with no clickable links.

With MacWeb 2.0, "helper" settings are controlled through Internet Config. Under MacWeb's Edit menu select Preferences and scroll down the list on the left to "File map". Click on it, then on the words "File Mappings". Internet Config launches and displays a list of file suffixes and their related file types and helper applications. Scroll down the list till you see the file extension ".gif" and select it. Click on "Change". Make sure the "Post Process" box is checked, then click on the large

button directly to the right, which will show the name of some default image-viewing program, probably JPEGView. A file-selector dialogue appears, so find GIFwatcher and open it. Now click on "OK", then close the "File Mappings" window. From the menu bar choose "File" and "Save", then quit Internet Config.

The next time you click on a web page GIF image icon in MacWeb 2.0, GIFwatcher will launch automatically and display it. In MacWeb versions before 2.0, you must command-click on the icon.

Viewing memory-hungry JPEGs

You can download JPEG image files to disk and view them with GIFConverter, but sometimes you'll find that images with "millions" of colours need more memory to open than you've got. A way round this is to convert the JPEG to a GIF. GIFs are limited to 256 colours or greys, and so use less memory. A GIF made this way looks identical to the original JPEG on black and white screens. The trouble is that most image-converter programs refuse to run on black and white Macs, and in

any case may need to open the JPEG in order to convert it - and that's just what you cannot do! To the rescue comes JPEG Convert, a freeware application that can batch process your image files. It also converts GIFs to JPEGs.  

Cut-and-Paste text

Unlike just about any other Mac application, you can't select and copy text from MacWeb's window to the clipboard. To get round this, I installed an FKEY called "Text Capture", which allows you to select and copy text from any window (or dialog box etc). Note that this gives you editable text, not a graphic image of text.

Proxy servers

All versions of MacWeb can use "proxy servers" for the Web, ftp, gopher and WAIS. Proxy servers are set up by your network admin or ISP to cache files downloaded by users. This means that popular downloads are accessed from local disks



Chapter 7

Surf On 1 Meg??


You bet!


Why would you want to do this? You may have an old Plus or SE that's sitting in the closet gathering dust. You can take it down to the basement to your 'private office' and surf in the middle of the night. Or you can give it to the kids and let them have their way with it.

Maybe you have an extra Mac in the kitchen that you want to use for email or newsgroups. Or maybe you're ready to tackle a fun project after years of using only ClarisWorks or Hypercard. Maybe you just want to rough it or you're too lazy to upgrade to 4 megs 

No matter. Here's the scoop. 


 1. Mac Plus and up. I KNOW there is a way to use the 512, alhtough I haven't attempted it yet.

 2. A working floppy drive. An external floppy would be nice, but it's not necessary. You can put the system and the application you'll be using on the internal floppy and run off the internal floppy drive with no hard drive. 

3. FreeTerm 3.0 or ZTerm .9. ( Yes, that's a 'point' 9. I don't know if ZTerm 1.0 will fit on an 800k floppy with a bootable system.)

4. You can use system 5 or up.  

6. An internet account (SLIP or PPP).  

7. Your internet service provider (ISP) must have a Unix program called Lynx on their system for you to access the net. Call them and ask them if they do, or just follow the proceedures below to find out for yourself.


Making A System Boot Disk on an 800k Floppy


You'll need enough room on the floppy for both the system and ZTerm or FreeTerm. The minimum files you need in a system folder are the 'Finder' and the 'System'. Make sure you put these files into a folder called System Folder. You can add other files like the clipboard for copy and paste functions, but you won't really have room for any applications to copy TO. You could add the note pad desk accessory if you really HAVE to copy something to the clipboard. Keep in mind that everything you'll be using must fit on one 800k floppy. I have a tiny text editor called Anarcho which MIGHT fit on the floppy. It's on my shareware page:


I use system 6.07 which was a very stable system. I put the folowing files into the system folder on the floppy:



The general controls allows you to set general parameters such as the time and date, the mouse allows you to set the mouse speed. You CAN use the Mac just fine without these, but I chose to add them because there was enough room on the floppy.

 ZTerm .9 comes with a few files that you'll have to take out of the ZTerm folder if you want to run ZTerm from an 800k floppy. I put the folowing files into the ZTerm folder on the boot floppy along with the system folder:



I took OUT the following files from the ZTerm folder because they aren't absolutely necessary:


You can save these on another floppy for use later.

The above boot floppy has 38k of free space. Keep in mind that any earlier system (5 or up) will more than likely be a tad smaller than 6.07, so you may have more room for more system goodies.


 How the Heck Do You Surf With ZTerm??

OK. You had to ask. Launch ZTerm. Go to the 'Dial' menu. Select "Directory'. If you have a net account, you'll need to enter in it's dialup phone number and account name. Go to the 'New' button'. Enter the information for your account.

Set the data rate (modem speed) to the appropriate setting. Set 'Parity' to non, 'Data Bits' to 8, 'Stop Bits' to 1. Turn on auto flow and if you have a modem cable that was made after 1992, you more than likely have a hardware handshaking cable, so check that box if it applies.

Next, go to the 'Setting's' menu and select 'Terminal'. Now check the VT-100 box. Leave all the other settings as they are.

Now you are ready to dial. Go back to the 'dial' menu and select your internet provider. ZTerm will dial the modem. When you connect, you'll probably be prompted with a request for a user name and password. If you have a net account (and you should or else this whole dang manual is for nought!) you'll know what these are. Type them in.

If everything goes as planned, you're in. If it doesn't, make some coffee and read a few Dilbert strips. After the obligatory intorduction text appears and stops scrolling, type the word Lynx and hit the enter kley. If your ISP has Lynx on their server, you should automatically go to a web page, more than likely it will be your ISP's home page. You are now on the web with 1 meg of ram!


What Do I Do Now?


If you've surfed the web via a graphic web browser like Netscape, you'll be wondering what the heck you are seeing when you get on via Lynx. It's the 'old fashioned' way of browsing - all text.

See all that white text on a black background? Those are links. Just hit your up or down arrow to scroll to the link and keep your eyes on the itty bitty flashing cursor. Then hit your enter key to go to that link.

You should get a list of commands at the bottom of your screen that will get you started. Here are a few more. You can retrieve these commands by typing ? when in Lynx.

? - Help
Down arrow - Highlight next topic
Up arrow - Highlight previous topic
Right arrow, - Jump to highlighted topic
Return, Enter
Left arrow - Return to previous topic
SCROLLING: + - Scroll down to next page (Page-Down)
- - Scroll up to previous page (Page-Up)
SPACE - Scroll down to next page (Page-Down)
b - Scroll up to previous page (Page-Up)
CTRL-A - Go to first page of the current document (Home)
CTRL-E - Go to last page of the current document (End)
CTRL-B - Scroll up to previous page (Page-Up)
CTRL-F - Scroll down to next page (Page-Down)
CTRL-N - Go forward two lines in the current document
CTRL-P - Go back two lines in the current document
CTRL-R - Reload current file and refresh the screen
CTRL-W - Refresh the screen
CTRL-U - Erase input line
CTRL-G - Cancel input or transfer
CTRL-T - Toggle trace mode on and off
CTRL-K - Invoke the Cookie Jar Page
) - Go forward half a page in the current document
( - Go back half a page in the current document
# - Go to Toolbar or Banner in the current document
c - Create a new file
d - Download selected file
e - Edit selected file
f - Show a full menu of options for current file
m - Modify the name or location of selected file
r - Remove selected file
t - Tag highlighted file
u - Upload a file into the current directory
a - Add the current link to a bookmark file
c - Send a comment to the document owner
d - Download the current link
g - Goto a user specified URL or file
G - Edit the current document's URL and use that as a goto URL.
i - Show an index of documents
j - Execute a jump operation
k - Show a list of key mappings
l - List references (links) in current document
m - Return to main screen
o - Set your options
p - Print to a file, mail, printers, or other
q - Quit (Capital 'Q' for quick quit)
/ - Search for a string within the current document
s - Enter a search string for an external search
n - Go to the next search string
v - View a bookmark file
V - Go to the Visited Links Page
x - Force submission of form or link with no-cache
z - Cancel transfer in progress
[backspace] - Go to the History Page
= - Show file and link info
\ - Toggle document source/rendered view
! - Spawn your default shell
' - Toggle "historical" vs minimal or valid comment parsing
` - Toggle minimal or valid comment parsing
* - Toggle image_links mode on and off
@ - Toggle raw 8-bit translations or CJK modeon or off
[ - Toggle pseudo_inlines mode on and off
] - Send a HEAD request for the current doc or link
" - Toggle valid or "soft" double-quote parsing

Can I send Email with Lynx?


Sure! Just type g and hit enter. Now type and of course fill in the REAL address. You'll see a new screen with insctructions. You can also access usenet by typing the news URL thusly: 


Then hit the enter key. Now you can paruse the newsgroups with one meg and a floppy.

 OK Smartypants, Betcha I Can't Download!!

 Wrong mouse breath! With a small caveat... You must have a directory located on your ISP's server to download to, then you'll have to use another ftp application such as Fetch (which needs a hard drive to run). If anyone knows how to retrieve files any other way via a Lynx setup, please let me know. If you're at all familiar with the net, you probably have another Mac that CAN run Fetch or another FTP application and you can download your files on that Mac. I do this all the time from my girlfriend's Classic. Then when I get to my house, I download the files via Fetch.


Chapter 8

RamCharger Review



This is a review of Ram Charger which is a control panel that lets you open more applications at once without running out of ram. Very very cool. I tried it on my Mac Plus with 4 megs of ram and was able to open Claris Works 2.1, MS Word 5.1a, Superpaint, TexEdit Plus, MacWeb, and several small games and desk accessories AT THE SAME TIME! Absolutely NO incompatibilities, no crashes, no problems whatsoever.  

PLEASE NOTE: This review covers Ram Charger 2.1. Version 3 is now available in the retail and mail order channels for about $40 street. Highly recommended for older Macs that are maxed out at 4 megs.


OptiMem Ram Charger 2.1



Because not long ago there were several queries about the advantages and disadvantages of RAMDoubler, I decided to review another memory-enhancing product for the Macintosh, OptiMem, from the Jump Development Group. Before I evaluate this utility, it is best to explain how Macintosh memory is used and the different modes of operation of OptiMem and RAMDoubler. 

Macintosh Memory

When you pull down "About this Macintosh" under the Apple menu, immediately after starting your Mac, you see displayed the total amount of memory available in your computer, followed by a figure for the "largest unused block." Why isn't the "largest unused block" equal to the "total amount of memory available" when there are no programs running? The system software (including the Finder), which gives your Macintosh its unique characteristics, will typically use an amount between 1.5 and 3 megabytes of RAM, or even more if you have a PowerMac or use QuickDraw GX and PowerTalk; this usage is indicated by a number followed by a horizontal bar below.

The amount of RAM which is left over roughly corresponds to the "largest unused block." This space is what is available for your programs. Each Macintosh program is given a fixed space or "partition" when it is run based on the "preferred" and "minimum" memory sizes which you can see and modify when you

select the program's icon and choose "get info"; the "preferred" size is used unless it is greater than the "largest unused block," in which case the program is given the amount specified by the "minimum size" if there is enough memory left (otherwise you get a message indicating insufficient memory). Your program's memory space cannot be enlarged or reduced once the program is running.

The different roles of RAMDoubler and OptiMem

 RAMDoubler effectively doubles the TOTAL POOL OF MEMORY available to your Macintosh; thus the "largest unused block" will be almost double (since you still have to subtract the memory used by the system software from the "total memory" figure). This means that you can run many more programs concurrently. Despite the huge advantage of having doubling one's memory, there are several inherent disadvantages to RAMDoubler:

1. It won't run on older Macs, because RD implements a type of virtual memory, and VM requires a microprocessor with a memory management unit (basically a 68030 or later).

 2. It requires at least 8 megabytes of RAM in order to run properly without unduly affecting performance. 

3. It affects the performance of your computer at all times, particularly as the total memory you use exceeds the amount of real memory available inside your computer. It also makes extensive changes to the way in which your Macintosh operates, so that conflicts and problems can arise, and if they do, you have to completely disable RAMDoubler.

However, for most people RD has been remarkably trouble free. 

4. RD does not change the fact that each program runs in its own fixed memory partition; a program still runs out of memory while running if it exceeds its allotted memory limit, even when there is still a great deal of available memory as indicated by the "largest unused block" amount. 

The memory needs of programs change significantly depending upon how you use them. For example, Microsoft Word 5 and Excel 4 can both run comfortably in less than 1024K of RAM, but will then refuse to open a particularly large file (or run Word's grammar checker). Graphics programs such as Graphic Converter can often open only one JPEG file in their "preferred" space; you must manually increase this size if you want to view more than one file at once.  

The FindFile function in System 7.5 runs out of memory when it finds more than approximately 300 files. Since it is impractical to frequently change the "preferred" sizes for a specific applications depending on different uses--which still does not solve the problem of an application running out of memory during a particular session-- it would be ideal if each program were given just the minimum amount of memory needed for basic operation, which could be expanded depending on the circumstances.

OptiMem does just this: when it is installed, it makes the "largest free block" of memory on your Macintosh into a pool available to ALL your programs which are henceforth no longer limited to their individually-sized partitions as set in the "Get info" dialog box. OptiMem consists of three components: a control panel which can provide a continuous display (also called "Heads up") of available memory, memory saved, memory expanded (the extra memory which programs have obtained under OptiMem), and some other

useful information; "Heads up" also gives you access to the memory settings for different programs by running a small program ("Optimem settings") which relies on the third part, a database containing the memory settings for different programs.

When you launch a program with OptiMem installed, the utility checks to see if the program is known to it; if it is (OptiMem's developers have tested many popular programs and provided special settings for them), the program launches with a very small memory size, often much less than the minimum: for example, ZTerm launches with 40K, Stuffit Expander with 128K, and Word 5 is given 640K. This can liberate a considerable amount of memory. If the program is unknown, you are informed of this and given the choice of optimizing using the "minimum" memory size (this is called "best"optimization), with the "preferred" memory size (this s called "safer"), not optimizing at all, or terminating the program's launch.

Once your programs are known to OptiMem, it works invisibly. However, depending on how certain programs work with optimization, you may need to adjust their settings; this can be done semi-automatically by having the settings database open at a program's name while you use that particular program; once you quit it, OptiMem's "Wizard" will tell you whether you can

reduce that program's initial memory size. Even if you choose to disable OptiMem for a particular program, it still gives you the ability to change its "preferred" and "minimum" memory sizes without the bother of changing them via "Get info" (NB: there is a shareware program called "AppSizer" which does this; and Now Menus offers a similar feature).


My major worry with OptiMem concerned performance degradation and conflicts; I was happy to see that it didn't seem to use CPU time when my computer was idle (as revealed by a utility called "CheckTicks"), but there is a slightly noticeable delay during program launching and quitting as the database is consulted (since memory is allocated and deallocated at those times). Especially because I run Word in 2 megabytes of RAM without OptiMem, I found that I was easily saving 2 megabytes when running five or six programs simultaneously. For this reason, I would highly recommend OptiMem to Mac users with 4 megabytes of RAM who run Word 5. If you run your programs in their minimum partitions anyway, you won't notice huge memory savings, but OptiMem's usefulness comes in allows those applications to function under all conditions. 

There were few disappointments: I was thrilled at the thought of running Netscape in 1700K instead of 3000K, but for some reason downloaded files aren't automatically debinhexed and decompressed using StuffitExpander. Furthermore, with OptiMem enabled for it, Netscape keeps using more and more memory as you navigate, so that you could soon run out of RAM; when Netscape runs without optimization, it eventually reaches its memory limit and automatically starts clearing its buffer.

In general, I have found OptiMem to be unobtrusive and very useful. There is a minor conflict with the Finder shortcuts" item under balloon help, since it disappears under certain conditions, but apparently I'm the first person to experience the problem.

OptiMem has several other nice features. It adjusts the amount of memory available to the system and the Finder, thereby reducing the frequency of "Command could not be completed" messages and other problems related to low system memory. In addition, if one of these errors occurs, OptiMem facilitates recovery (once you have released some memory) by letting you complete the operation which was refused, such as opening a window or a control panel. Finally, OptiMem provides an automatic and configurable low memory warning which is displayed over the Apple menu.

From the introduction, some may have already reached the conclusion that OptiMem and RAMDoubler are complementary in operation; you could actually use both simultaneously in order to maximize the total amount of RAM available and give all programs simultaneous access to that memory. 

To summarize OptiMem's advantages:

OptiMem RAMCharger2.1 can be purchased directly from Jump Development for $59.95

( or for $49.95 from the major mail-order firms.

Chapter 9 - Internet FAQ (more info on software setup for internet use) 

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